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Ji-Won Kim, and Soon-Il An 2018: Western North Pacific anticyclone chnage associated with the EL Nino-Indian Ocean Dipole coupling. International Journal of Climatology. DOI:

Soon-Il An, and Ji-Won Kim 2018: Transition asymmetry of ENSO: Internal and external causes and intermodal diversity. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, DOI:

Axel Timmermann, Soon-Il An, Jong-Seong Kug, Fei-Fei Jin, Wenju Cai, Antonietta Capotondi, Kim Cobb, Matthieu Lengaigne, Michael J McPhaden, Malte F Stuecker, Karl Stein, Andrew T Wittenberg, Kyung-Sook Yun, Tobias Bayr, Han-Ching Chen, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Boris Dewitte, Dietmar Dommenget, Pamela Grothe, Eric Guilyardi, Yoo-Geun Ham, Michiya Hayashi, Sarah Ineson, Daehyun Kang, Sunyong Kim, Wonmoo Kim, June-Yi Lee, Tim Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shayne Mcgregor, Yann Planton, Scott Power, Harun Rashid, Hong-Li Ren, Agus Santoso, Ken Takahashi, Alexander Todd, Guomin Wang, Guojian Wang, Ruihuang Xie, Woo-Hyun Yang, Sang-Wook Yeh, Jinho Yoon, Elke Zeller, Xuebin Zhang. 2018 : El Nino-Southern Oscillation complexity. Nature. DOI:10.1038/s41586-018-0252-6

Ji-Won Kim, Soon-Il An. 2018 : Origin of early-spring central Pacific warming as the 1982-1983 El Nino precursor. Int J Climatol. DOI:10.1002/joc.5465


Soon-Il An. 2018 : Impact of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on Frequency Asymmetry of El Nino and La Nina Events. Advances in Atmospheric Science. DOI:10.1007/s00376-018-8024-7


Soon-Il An, Hayoung Bong. 2018 : Feedback process responsible for the suppression of ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene. Theor Appl Climatol. DOI:10.1007/s00704-017-2117-6

Soon-Il An, Seul-Hee Im, Sang-Yoon Jun, 2018 : Changes in ENSO activity during the last 6,000 years modulated by background climate state. Geophysical Research Letters. DOI:10.1002/2017GL076250

Sang-Wook Yeh, Wenju Cai, Seung-Ki Min, Michael J. McPhaden, Dietmar Dommenget, Boris Dewitte, Matthew Collins, Karumuri Ashok, Soon-Il An, Bo-Young Yim, Jong-Seong Kug, 2018 : ENSO atmospheric teleconnections and their response to greenhouse gas forcing. Reviews of Geophysics., 56, 185-206. DOI:10.1002/2017RG000568

So-Jung Shin, Soon-Il An, 2018 : Interdecadal Change in the Relationship Between the North Pacific Oscillation and the Pacific Meridional Mode and Its Impact on ENSO. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. DOI:10.1007/s13143-017-0060-1


Soon-Il An,  Eun Sook Heo, Seon Tae Kim. 2017 : Feedback process responsible for intermodel diversity of ENSO variability. Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2017GL073203.

Soon-Il An, Hayoung Bong. 2017 : Feedback process responsible for the suppression of ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene. Theor Appl Climatol. doi:10.1007/s00704-017-2117-6.

Soon-Il An, Hyo-Jeong Kim,Wonsun Park, Birgit Schneider. 2017 : Impact of ENSO on East Asian winter monsoon during interglacial periods: effect of orbital forcing. Climate Dynamics. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3506-8.

Soon-Il An, Ji-Won Kim. 2017 : Role of nonlinear ocean dynamic response to wind on the asymmetrical transition of El Nino and La Nina. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 393-400, doi:10.1002/ 2016GL071971.



Ji-Won Kim, Soon-Il An, Sang-Yoon Jun, Hey-Jin Park and Sang-Wook Yeh. 2016 : ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone. Climate dynamics. DOI 10.1007/s00382-016-3371-5


Soon-Il An, Hayoung Bong. 2015 : Inter-decadal change in El Nino-Southern Oscillation examined with Bjerknes stability index analysis. Climate dynamics.  DOI 10.1007/s00382-015-2883-8

Wenju Cai, Agus Santoso, Guojian Wang, Sang-Wook Yeh, Soon-Il An, Kim Cobb, Mat Collins,
Eric Guilyardi, Fei-Fei Jin, Jong-Seong Kug, Matthieu Lengaigne, Michael J. McPhaden,
Ken Takahashi, Axel Timmermann, Gabriel Vecchi, Masahiro Watanabe and Lixin Wu. 2015 : ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nature climate chage.


Seul-Hee Im, Soon-Il An, Seon Tae Kim, and Fei-Fei Jin. 2015 : Feedback processes responsible for El Nino-La Nina amplitude asymmetry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5556-5563,

Mi-Kyung Sung, Soon-Il An, Baek-Min Kim, and Jong-Seong Kug. 2015 : Asymmetric impact of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on El Nino and La Nina characteristics. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 4998-5004,

Yu, J.-Y., P.-K. Kao, H. Paek, H.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Hung, M.-M. Lu, and S.-I. An, 2015 : Linking Emergence of the Central-Pacific El Nino to the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation. J.Climate., 28, 651-662.

S.-I. An., and J. Choi, 2015 : Why the Twenty-first Century Tropical Pacific Trend Pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO Amplitude?. Climate Dynamics., 44, 133-146.


Yun Gon Lee, Jhoon Kim,Chang-Hoi Ho ,Soon-Il An, Hi-Ku Cho, Rui Mao, Baijun Tian, Dong Wu, Jae N. Lee,Olga Kalashnikova, Yunsoo Choi and Sang-Wook Yeh.  2014 : The effects of ENSO under negative AO phase on spring dust activity over northern China: an observational investigation. Int. J. Climatol., 35(6). 935-947.

Kim, S.-T., W. Cai, F.-F. Jin, A. Santoso, L. Wu, E. Guilyardi, and S.-I. An 2014 : Response of El Nino sea surface temperature variability to greenhouse warming, Nature Climate Change, 4, 786-790.

Ham, Y.-G., M.-K. Sung, S.-I. An, S.D. Schubert and J.-S. Kug 2014 : Role of tropical Atlantic SST variability as a modulator of El Nino teleconnections. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50(1), 1-15.

Park, J.-H, and S.-I. An 2014 : Impact of Tropical Western Pacific Convection on the North Pacific Atmospheric Circulation during the Boreal Winter. Climate Dynamics,, 43, 2227-2238.

S.-I. An, and S.-H. Im, 2014 : Blunt ocean dynamical thermostat in response of tropicla eastern Pacific SST to global warming. Theoretical and Applied Climatology,, 118, 173-183.

S.-I. An, and Choi, 2014 : Mid-Holocene Tropicla Pacific Climate State, Annual Cycle, and ENSO in PMIP2 and PMIP3. Climate Dynamics,, 43, 957-970.

Sung, M.-K., Kim, B.-M., S.-I. An, 2014 : Altered atmospheric responses to eastern Pacific and central Pacific El Ninos over the north Atlantic region due to stratospheric interference. Climate Dynamics,, 42, 159-170 (corresponding author)

Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug and S.-I. An, 2014 : Recent Progress on Two Types of El Nino : Observations, Dynamics, and Future Changes. Asia Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 50(1), 69-81, 2014.


Santos, A., S. McGregor, F.-F. Jin, W. Cai, M.H. England, S.-I. An, M.J. McPhaden and E. Guilyardi, 2013 : Late-twentieth-century emergence of the El Nino propagation asymmetry and future projections. Nature, 504, 126-130.

Sung, M. -K., Y.-G. Ham, J.-S. Kug, and S.-I. An, 2013: An Alterative Effect by the Tropical North Atlantic SST  in Intraseasonally Varying El Nino Teleconnection  over the North Atlantic.Tellus A, Tellus A 2013, 65, 19863(corresponding author).

Thual, S., B. Dewitte, S.-I. An, S. Illig, and N. Ayoub, 2013: Influence of Recent Stratification Changes on ENSO stability in a Conceptual Model of the Equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 26,4790-4802.

Choi, J., S.-I. An, S.-W. Yeh, and J.-Y. Yu, 2013: ENSO-like and ENSO-induced Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability in CGCMs, J. Climate, 26, 1485-1501(corresponding author).

An, S.-I. and J. Choi, 2013 : Inverse relationship between the equatorial eastern Pacific annual-cycle and ENSO amplitudes in a Coupled General Circulation Model, Climate Dynamics, 40,663-675.

Choi, J. and S.-I. An, 2013 : Quantifying the residual effects of ENSO on low-frequency variability in the tropical Pacific, Int. J. Climatology, 33,1047-1052(corresponding author).

Y. Tang, S.-I. An, and W. Duan, 2013 : Climate Variability and Predictability at Various Time Scales, Advances in Meteorology, 2012, Article ID 857831, 1 page. doi:10.1155/2012/857831.


Im, S.-H., S.-I. An, M. Lengaigne, and Y, Noh, 2012: Seasonality of Tropical Instability Waves and Its Feedback to the Seasonal Cycle in the Tropical Eastern Pacific, The Scientific World Journal, 2012, Article ID 612048, 11 pages. doi:10.1100/2012/612048.(corresponding author)

Ham, S., S.-Y. Jong, Y. Noh, S.-I. An, Y.-H. Byun, H.-S. Kang, J. Lee, and W.-T. Kwon, 2012 : Effects of fresh water run off on a trpical Pacific climate in the HAdGEM2. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 457 -463.

An, S.-I., J.-W Kim, S.-H. Im, B.-M. Kim, and J.-H. Park, 2012 : Recent and Future Sea Surface Temperature Trends in Tropical Pacific Warm Pool and Cold Tongue Regions, Climate Dynamics, 39, 1373-1383.

Dewitte B., J. Choi, S.-I. An, and S. Thual, 2012 : Vertical structure variability and equatorial waves during central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Ninos in a coupled general circulation model, Climate Dynamics, 38, 2275-2289.

Choi, J., S.-I. An, and S.-W. Yeh, 2012 : Decadal amplitude modulation of two types of ENSO and its relationship with the mean state, Climate Dynamics, 38, 2631-2644.(corresponding author)(June 1, 2012)

An, S.-I., J.-H. Park, B.-M. Kim, A. Timmermann, and F.-F. Jin, 2012 : Impacts of ocean gateway and basin width on Tertiary tropical climate variability in a prototype model, Theor, Appl. Climatol., 107, 155-164.(Jan. 9, 2012)


An, S.-I., 2011 : Atmospheric responses of Gill-type and Lindzen-Nigam models to global warming, J. Climate, 24, 6165-6173.(Dec 1, 2011)

Choi, J., S.-I. An, J.-S. Kug, and S.-W. Yeh, 2011 : The role of mean state on changes in El Nino’s flavor, Climate Dynamics, 37, 1205-1215.(corresponding author)(Sep. 1, 2011)

Thual, S., B. Dewitte, N. Ayoub, and S.-I. An, 2011 : Sensitivity of ENSO to stratification in a recharge-discharge conceptual model. J. Climate, 24, 4332-4349.


Kim, B.-M., and S.-I. An, 2011: Understanding ENSO regime behavior upon an increase in the warm-pool temperature using a simple ENSO model. J. Climate, 24, 1438-1450.(corresponding author)(Mar. 1, 2011)

An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2011: Linear solutions for the frequency and amplitude modulation of ENSO by the annual cycle, Tellus, 63A, 238-243.(Mar. 1, 2011)


An, S.-I., and J. Choi, 2010 : Interaction between Equatorially Symmetric and Asymmetric Tropical Eastern Pacific SSTs, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 102, 151-158.

Belmadani, A., B. Dewitte and S.-I. An, 2010 : ENSO feedbacks and associated timescales of variabillity in a multi-model ensemble, J.Climate, 23, 3181-3204.(June 15, 2010)

Collins, M., S.-I. An, W. Cai, A. Ganachaud, E. Guilyardi, F.-F. Jin, M. Jochum, M. Lengaigne, S. Power, A. Timmermann, G. Vecchi, and A. Wittenberg, 2010: The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Nino, Nature Geoscience, 3, 391-397.

Kug, J.-S., S.-I. An, Y.-G. Ham, and I.-S. Kang, 2010 : Changes in El Nino and La Nina teleconncetions over North Pacific-America in the global warming simulations, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 100, 275-282. corresponding author)(May. 2010)

Kug, J.-S., J. Choi, S.-I. An, F.-F. Jin and A.-T. Wittenberg, 2010 : Warm Pool and Cold Tongue El Nino events as simulated by the GFDL2.1 coupled GCM, J. Climate, 23, 1226-1239.(corresponding author)(Mar. 1, 2010)

An, S. -I., Y.-G. Ham, J.-S. Kug, A. Timmermann, J. Choi and I.-S. Kang, 2010 : The inverse effect of annual mean state and annual cycle changes on ENSO, J. Climate, 23, 1095-1110.(Mar. 1, 2010)


Choi, J., S.-I. An, B. Dewitte, and W.-W. Hsieh, 2009 : Interactive feedback between the tropical Pacific decadal oscillation and ENSO in a coupled general circulation model, J. Climate, 22, 6597-6611.(corresponding author)(Dec. 15. 2009)

Dewitte, B., S. Thual, S.-W. Yeh, S.-I. An, B.-K. Moon, and Giese, 2009 : Low-frequency Variability of Temperature in the Vicinity of the Equatorial Pacific thermocline in SODA: Role of Equatorial Wave Dynamics and ENSO Asymmetry, J. Climate, 22, 5783-5795.(Nov. 15, 2009)

An, S. -I., and J. Choi, 2009 : Seasonal locking of the ENSO asymmetry and its influence on the seasonal cycle of the tropical eastern Pacific sea surface temperature. Atmospheric Research, 94, 3-9.(Sep. 2009).

An, S. -I., 2009 : A review of interdecadal changes in the nonlinearity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97, 29-40.(June, 2009)

Kug, J.-S., F.-F. Jin, and S.-I. An, 2009 : Two Types of El Nino Events: Cold Tongue El Nino and Warm Pool El Nino, J. Climate, 22, 1499-1515.(march 15, 2009).


An, S.-I., 2008 : Interannual Changes in the Variability of Tropical Pacific Instability Waves, Asia Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 44, 249-258.(Aug, 2008)

An, S.-I., 2008 : Interannual Variations of the Tropical Ocean Instability Wave and ENSO, J. Climate. 21, 3680-3686.(Aug, 2008)

An, S.-I., J.-S. Kug, Y.-G. Ham, and I.-S. Kang, 2008 : Successive modulation of ENSO to the future greenhouse warming, J. Climate. 21, 3-21.(Jan. 15, 2008)


Timmermann, A., Y. Okumura, S.-I. An, A. Clement, B. Dong, E. Guilyardi, A. Hu, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Renold, T. F. Stocker, R. J. Stouffer, R. Sutton, S.-P. Xie, and J. Yin, 2007 : The influence of a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on ENSO, J. Climate. 20, 4899-4919.

Timmermann, A., S. J. Lorenz, S.-I. An, A. Clement, and S.-P. Xie, 2007 : The effect of orbital forcing on the mean climate and variability of the tropical Pacific, J. Climate. 20, 4147-4159.

Dewitte, B., C. Cibot, C. Perigaud, S.-I. An, and L. Terray, 2007 : Interaction between near-annual and ENSO modes in a CGCM simulation : Role of the equatorial background mean state, J. Climate. 20, 1035-1052.

Holland, C. L., R. B. Scott, S.-I. An, and F. W. Taylor, 2007 : Propagating decadal sea surface temperature signal identified in modern proxy records of the tropical Pacific, Climate Dynamics, 28, 163-179.

An, S.-I., J.-S. Kug, A. Timmermann, I.-S. Kang, and O. Timm, 2007 : The influence of ENSO on the generation of decadal variability in the North Pacific, J. Climate. 20, 667-680.


An, S.-I., Z. Ye., and W. Hsieh, 2006 : Changes in the leading ENSO modes associated with the late 1970s climate shift : Role of surface zonal current, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14609.

Kug, J.-S., T. Li, S.-I. An, I.-S. Kang, J.-J. Luo, S. Masson, and T. Yamagata, 2006 : Role of the ENSO-Indian Ocean coupling on ENSO variability in a coupled GCM, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L09710.


Wang, B., and S.-I. An, 2005 : A method for season-dependent modes of climate variability : S-EOF analysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15710.

Timmermann, A., S.-I. An, U. Krebs, and H. Goosse, 2005 : ENSO suppression due to a weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, J. Climate. 18, 3122-3139.

Kug, J.-S., S.-I. An, F.-F. Jin, and I.-S. Kang, 2005 : Preconditions for El Nino and La Nina onsets and their relation to Indian Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05706.

An, S.-I., and W. W. Hsieh, and F.-F. Jin, 2005 : A nonlinear analysis of ENSO cycle and its interdecadal changes, J. Climate. 18, 3229-3239.

An, S.-I., 2005 : Relative roles of the equatorial upper ocean zonal current and thermocline in determining the timescale of the tropical climate system, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 81, 121-132.

An, S.-I., Y.-G. Ham, J.-S. Kug, F.-F. Jin, and I.-S. Kang, 2005 : El Nino-La Nina asymmetry in the coupled model Intercomparison project simulations, J. Climate. 18, 2617-2627.


An, S.-I., A. Timmermann, L. Bejarano, F.-F. Jin, F. Justino, Z. Liu, and A. W. Tudhope, 2004 : Modeling evidence for enhanced El Nino-Southern Oscillation amplitude during the Last Glacial Maximum, Paleoceanography. 19, PA4009.

An, S.-I., 2004 : Interdecadal changes in the El Nino-La Nina asymmetry, Geophy. Res. Lett., 31, L23210.

Kang, I.-S., J.-S. Kug, S.-I. An and F.-F. Jin, 2004 : A Near-Annual Pacific Ocean Basin Mode, J. Climate. 17, 2478-2488.

An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2004 : Nonlinearity and asymmetry of ENSO, J. Climate. 17, 2399-2412.

An, S.-I., 2004 : A dynamic link between the basin-scale and zonal modes in the Tropical Indian Ocean, Theor. Appl. Climato., 78, 203-215.

Kug, J.-S., I.-S. Kang and S.-I. An, 2003 : Symmetric and anti-symmetric mass exchanges between the equatorial and off-equatorial Pacific associated with ENSO, J. Geophy. Res. -Oceans. 108, C8, 3284.

An, S.-I., 2003 : Conditional Maximum Covariance Analysis and its Application to the Tropical Indian Ocean SST and Surface wind Stress Anomalies, J. Climate. 16, 2932-2938.

Jin, F.-F., S.-I. An, A. Timmermann, and J. Zhao, 2003 : Strong El Nino events and nonlinear dynamical heating, Geophys. Res. Letts. 30, 1120.

Jin, F.-F., J.-S. Kug, S.-I. An and I.-S. Kang, 2003 : A near-annual coupled ocean-atmosphere mode in the equatorial Pacific ocean, Geophys. Res. Letts. 30, 1080.

Wang, B., and S.-I. An, 2002 : A mechanism for decadal changes of ENSO behavior : Roles of background wind changes, Climate Dyn. 18, 475-486.

An, S.-I., and I.-S. Kang, 2001 : Tropical Pacific Basin-Wide Adjustment and Oceanic Waves, Geophy. Res. Lett., 28, 3975-3978.

Wang, B., and S.-I. An, 2001 : Why the Properties of El Nino changed During the Late 1970s, Geophy. Res. Lett., 28, 3421-3432.

An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2001 : Collective Role of Thermocline and Zonal Advective Feedbacks in the ENSO Mode, J. Climate, 14, 3421-3432.

An, S.-I., and I.-S. Kang, 2001 : Sensitivity of the Equatorial Air-Sea Coupled System to the Zonal Phase Difference between SST and Wind Stress, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 155-165.

Kang, I.-S., S.-I. An and F.-F. Jin, 2001 : A Systematic Approximation of the SST Anomaly Equation for ENSO, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan. 79, 1-10.

An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2001 : Mechanisms of locking the El Nino and La Nina mature phases to boreal winter, J. Climate. 27, 2164-2176.


An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2000 : An eigen analysis of the interdecadal changes in the structure and frequency of ENSO mode, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1573-1576.

An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2000 : Interdecadal change of the structure of the ENSO mode and it impact on the ENSO frequency, J. Climate. 13, 2044-2055.

An, S.-I., and I.-S. Kang, 2000 : A further investigation of the recharge oscillator paradigm for ENSO using a simple coupled model with the zonal mean and eddy separated, J. Climate. 13, 1987-1993.

An, S.-I, 2000 : On the slow mode in a simple air-sea coupled model : The Sensitivity to the zonal pahse difference between the SST and the atmospheric heating, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan. 78, 159-165.

An, S.-I., F.-F. Jin, and I.-S. Kang, 1999 : The role of zonal advection feedback in phase transition and growth of ENSO in the Cane-Zebiak model, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan. 77, 1151-1160.

Jin, F.-F. and S.-I. An, 1999 : Thermocline and zonal advection feedbacks within the equatorial ocean recharge oscillator model for ENSO, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2989-2992.

Kang, I.-S., and S.-I. An, 1998 : Kelvin and Rossby wave contributions to the SST oscillation of ENSO, J. Climate. 11, 2461-2469.


Domestic Journals  

An, S.-I. and J. Choi, 2012 : On the Development of 2012 EI Nino, Atmosphere. 22, 465-472( Korean).

Kug, J.-S., S.-I. An, 2010 : Ocean dynamic processes responsible for the interannual variability of the tropical Indian Ocean SST associated with ENSO, Atmosphere, 20, 211-219.

Kang, I.-S., S.-I. An, C.-H. Joung, S.-C. Yoon, and S.-M. Lee, 1989 : 30-60 day oscillation signal appearing in climatological variation of outgoing longwave radiation around East Asian region during Northern Summer, J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 25, 221-232.

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