Y-M Yang, J-H Park, S-I An, B Wang, and X Luo, 2021 : Mean sea surface temperature changes influence ENSO-related precipitation changes in the mid-latitudes. Nature Communications, 12, 1495. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21787-z


Sung, M.-K., S.-W. Son, C. Yoo, J. Hwang, and S.-I. An, 2021: Seesawing of winter extremes between East Asia and North America. Journal of Climate, 1-42. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0789.1


R Olson, S-I An, S-K Kim and Y Fan, 2021 : A novel approach for discovering stochastic models behind data applied to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Scientific Reports, 11, 2648. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81162-2




S-I An, E Tziperman, Y Okumura, and T Li, 2020: Chapter 4: Irregularity and asymmetry. AGU Monograph: ENSO in a Changing Climate.  M. McPhaden, A. Santoso, W. Cai (Eds.), Wiley, published.


S-I An, H-J Kim, and S-K Kim, 2021: Rate-dependent hysteresis of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation system and its asymmetric loop. Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2020GL090132. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090132


H-J Kim, S-I An, and D Kim, 2021 : Timescale-dependent AMOC-AMO relationship in an earth system model of intermediate complexity. International Journal of Climatology, 41, E3298-E3306. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6926.


R Olson, A Timmermann, J-Y Lee, and S-I An, 2021: A low order dynamical model for runoff predictability. Climate Dynamics, 56, 399-422. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05479-w.


H Kim, S-W Yeh, S-I An, and S-Y Song, 2020 : Changes in the role of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on sea ice extent variability across the mid-1990s. Scientific Reports, 10, 17564. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74260-0.


JR Brown, CM Brierley, S-I An, et al, 2020: Comparison of past and future simulations of ENSO in CMIP5/PMIP3 and CMIP6/PMIP4 models. Climate of the Past, 16, 1777-1805. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2019-155.


S-Y Jun, J-H Kim, J Choi, S-J Kim, B-M Kim, and S-I An, 2020 : The internal origin of the west-east asymmetry of Antarctic climate change. Science Advances, 6, eaaz1490. 


H Kim, S-W Yeh, S-I An, J-H Park, B-M Kim, and E-H Baek, 2020 : Arctic sea ice loss as a potential trigger for central Pacific El Nino events. Geophysical Research letters, 47, e2020GL087028. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087028.


M-K Sung, C Yoo, S-W Yeh, Y Kosaka, and S-I An, 2020 : Characteristics of the north Pacific Oscillation in CMIP5 models in relation to atmospheric mean states. Journal of Climate, 33, 3809-3825. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0446.1


S-I An, S-K Kim, and A Timmermann, 2020 : Fokker-Planck dynamics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Scientific Reports, 10, 16282. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73449-7.


J-H Park, S-I An, J-S Kug, Y-M Yang, T Li, and H-S Jo, 2021 : Mid-latitude leading double-dip La Niña. International Journal of Climatology, 41, E1353-E1370. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6772


J Zhao, J-S Kug, J-H Park, and S-I An, 2020: Diversity of North Pacific meridional mode and its distinct impacts on El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL088993. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088993


Y-M Yang, S-I An, B Wang, and J H Park, 2020: A global-scale multidecadal variability driven by Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. National Science Review, 7, 1190-1197. https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwz216.



J.-H. Park, J.-S. Kug, S.-I. An, and T. Li, 2019: Role of the western hemisphere warm pool in climate variability over the western North Pacific. Climate Dynamics, 53, 2743-2755. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04652-0


R. Olson, S.-I. An, et al. 2019: A novel method to test non-exclusive hypotheses applied to Arctic ice projections from dependent models. Nature Communications, 10(1), 3016. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10561-x


Soong-Ki Kim, Soon-Il An. 2020: Untangling El Niño‐La Niña Asymmetries Using a Nonlinear Coupled Dynamic Index. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL085881. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL085881


Jongsoo Shin, Roman Olson, and Soon-Il An. 2019: Improved probabilistic twenty-first century projections of sea surface temperature over East Asian marginal seas by considering uncertainty owing to model error and internal variability. Climate Dynamics, 53, 6075-6087. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04911-0


Soon-Il An and Eun Sook Heo. 2019: Robust opposite‐changing tendency between the thermal advection damping by mean current and thermo‐dynamical damping of ENSO Feedback in a changing climate. Royal Meteorological Society. International Journal of Climatology, 39, 5822-5829. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6176


Hyo-Jeong Kim and Soon-Il An. 2019: Impact of North Atlantic Freshwater Forcing on the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation under Glacial and Interglacial Conditions. Journal of Climate, 32. 4641-4659. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0065.1


Roman Olson, Soon-Il An, Yanan Fan, and Jason P. Evans. 2019: Accounting for skill in trend, variability, and autocorrelation facilitates better multi-model projections: Application to the AMOC and temperature time series. PLoS ONE, 14(4): e021435. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0214535 




R. Olson, K. L. Ruckert, W. Chang, K. Keller, M. Haran, and S.-I. An, 2018: Stilt: Easy emulation of time series AR(1) computer model output in multidimensional parameter space. The R Journal 10:2, pages 209-225.


S.-W. Yeh et al 2018: ENSO atmospheric teleconnections and their response to greenhouse gas forcing. Reviews of Geophysics, 56, 185-206. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017RG000568


Ji-Won Kim, and Soon-Il An 2018: Western North Pacific anticyclone chnage associated with the EL Nino-Indian Ocean Dipole coupling. International Journal of Climatology, 39, 2505-2521. http://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5967


Soon-Il An, and Ji-Won Kim 2018: ENSO transition asymmetry: Internal and external causes and intermodel diversity. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 5095-5104. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078476


A. Timmermann, and S.-I. An, et al. 2018: El Nino-Southern Oscillation complexity. Nature, 559, 535-545. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0252-6


R. Olson, Soon-Il An, Y. Fan, J. P. Evans, L. Caesar. 2018 : North Atlantic observations sharpen meridional overturning projections. Climate Dynamics, 50, 4171-4188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3867-7


Ji-Won Kim, Soon-Il An. 2018 : Origin of early-spring central Pacific warming as the 1982-1983 El Nino precursor. International Journal of Climatology, 38, 2899-2906. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5465


Soon-Il An. 2018 : Impact of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on Frequency Asymmetry of El Niño and La Niña events. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 35, 493-494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-018-8024-7


Soon-Il An, Hayoung Bong. 2018 : Feedback process responsible for the suppression of ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 132, 779-790. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2117-6


Soon-Il An, Seul-Hee Im, Sang-Yoon Jun, 2018 : Changes in ENSO activity during the last 6,000 years modulated by background climate state. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 2467-2475. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076250


Sang-Wook Yeh, Wenju Cai, Seung-Ki Min, Michael J. McPhaden, Dietmar Dommenget, Boris Dewitte, Matthew Collins, Karumuri Ashok, Soon-Il An, Bo-Young Yim, Jong-Seong Kug, 2018 : ENSO atmospheric teleconnections and their response to greenhouse gas forcing. Reviews of Geophysics, 56, 185-206. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017RG000568


So-Jung Shin, Soon-Il An, 2018 : Interdecadal Change in the Relationship Between the North Pacific Oscillation and the Pacific Meridional Mode and Its Impact on ENSO. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 54, 53-61. 



Jongsoo Shin, R. Olson, Soon-Il An, 2018 : Projected Heat Wave Characteristics over the Korean Peninsula During the Twenty-First Century. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 54, 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-017-0059-7



Soon-Il An,  Eun Sook Heo, Seon Tae Kim. 2017 : Feedback process responsible for intermodel diversity of ENSO variability. Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2017GL073203.


Soon-Il An, Hayoung Bong. 2017 : Feedback process responsible for the suppression of ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene. Theor Appl Climatol. doi:10.1007/s00704-017-2117-6.


Jae-Heung Park, Soon-Il An, Jong-Seong Kug. 2017 : Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America. Climate Dynamics. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3538-8.


Soon-Il An, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Wonsun Park, Birgit Schneider. 2017 : Impact of ENSO on East Asian winter monsoon during interglacial periods: effect of orbital forcing. Climate Dynamics. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3506-8.


Soon-Il An, Ji-Won Kim. 2017 : Role of nonlinear ocean dynamic response to wind on the asymmetrical transition of El Nino and La Nina. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 393-400, doi:10.1002/ 2016GL071971.




Ji-Won Kim, Soon-Il An, Sang-Yoon Jun, Hey-Jin Park and Sang-Wook Yeh. 2016 : ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone. Climate dynamics. DOI 10.1007/s00382-016-3371-5




Soon-Il An, Hayoung Bong. 2015 : Inter-decadal change in El Nino-Southern Oscillation examined with Bjerknes stability index analysis. Climate Dynamics.  DOI 10.1007/s00382-015-2883-8


Wenju Cai, Agus Santoso, Guojian Wang, Sang-Wook Yeh, Soon-Il An, Kim Cobb, Mat Collins, Eric Guilyardi, Fei-Fei Jin, Jong-Seong Kug, Matthieu Lengaigne, Michael J. McPhaden, Ken Takahashi, Axel Timmermann, Gabriel Vecchi, Masahiro Watanabe and Lixin Wu. 2015 : ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nature climate change.


Seul-Hee Im, Soon-Il An, Seon Tae Kim, and Fei-Fei Jin. 2015 : Feedback processes responsible for El Nino-La Nina amplitude asymmetry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5556-5563,


Mi-Kyung Sung, Soon-Il An, Baek-Min Kim, and Jong-Seong Kug. 2015 : Asymmetric impact of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on El Nino and La Nina characteristics. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 4998-5004,


Seung-Ki Min, Seok-Woo Son, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Jong-Seong Kug, Soon-Il An, Yong-Sang Choi, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Baek-Min Kim, Ji-Won Kim, Yeon-Hee Kim, June-Yi Lee, and Myong-In Lee, 2015 : Changes in Weather and climate Extremes over Korea and Possible Causes: A Review. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 51(2), 103-121,


Yu, J.-Y., P.-K. Kao, H. Paek, H.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Hung, M.-M. Lu, and S.-I. An, 2015 : Linking Emergence of the Central-Pacific El Nino to the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation. J.Climate., 28, 651-662.


S.-I. An., and J. Choi, 2015 : Why the Twenty-first Century Tropical Pacific Trend Pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO Amplitude?. Climate Dynamics., 44, 133-146.



Yun Gon Lee, Jhoon Kim,Chang-Hoi Ho ,Soon-Il An, Hi-Ku Cho, Rui Mao, Baijun Tian, Dong Wu, Jae N. Lee,Olga Kalashnikova, Yunsoo Choi and Sang-Wook Yeh.  2014 : The effects of ENSO under negative AO phase on spring dust activity over northern China: an observational investigation. Int. J. Climatol., 35(6). 935-947.


Park, J.-H., and S.-I. An 2014 : Southward displacement of the upper atmosphere zonal jet in the eastern north Pacific due to global warming, Geophysical Res.Lett., 41, 7861-7867(Corresponding author)


Kim, S.-T., W. Cai, F.-F. Jin, A. Santoso, L. Wu, E. Guilyardi, and S.-I. An 2014 : Response of El Nino sea surface temperature variability to greenhouse warming, Nature Climate Change, 4, 786-790.


Sung, M.-K., S.-I. An, B.-M. Kim and S.-H. Woo 2014 : A physical mechanism of the precipitation dipole in the western United States based on PDO-storm track relationship. Geophy. Res. Lett., 41, 4719-4726.


Ham, Y.-G., M.-K. Sung, S.-I. An, S.D. Schubert and J.-S. Kug 2014 : Role of tropical Atlantic SST variability as a modulator of El Nino teleconnections. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50(1), 1-15.


Park, J.-H, and S.-I. An 2014 : Impact of Tropical Western Pacific Convection on the North Pacific Atmospheric Circulation during the Boreal Winter. Climate Dynamics,, 43, 2227-2238.


S.-I. An, and S.-H. Im, 2014 : Blunt ocean dynamical thermostat in response of tropicla eastern Pacific SST to global warming. Theoretical and Applied Climatology,, 118, 173-183.


S.-I. An, and Choi, 2014 : Mid-Holocene Tropicla Pacific Climate State, Annual Cycle, and ENSO in PMIP2 and PMIP3. Climate Dynamics,, 43, 957-970.


Sung, M.-K., Kim, B.-M., S.-I. An, 2014 : Altered atmospheric responses to eastern Pacific and central Pacific El Ninos over the north Atlantic region due to stratospheric interference. Climate Dynamics,, 42, 159-170 (corresponding author)


Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug and S.-I. An, 2014 : Recent Progress on Two Types of El Nino : Observations, Dynamics, and Future Changes. Asia Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 50(1), 69-81, 2014.



Santos, A., S. McGregor, F.-F. Jin, W. Cai, M.H. England, S.-I. An, M.J. McPhaden and E. Guilyardi, 2013 : Late-twentieth-century emergence of the El Nino propagation asymmetry and future projections. Nature, 504, 126-130.


Sung, M. -K., Y.-G. Ham, J.-S. Kug, and S.-I. An, 2013: An Alterative Effect by the Tropical North Atlantic SST  in Intraseasonally Varying El Nino Teleconnection  over the North Atlantic.Tellus A, Tellus A 2013, 65, 19863(corresponding author).


Thual, S., B. Dewitte, S.-I. An, S. Illig, and N. Ayoub, 2013: Influence of Recent Stratification Changes on ENSO stability in a Conceptual Model of the Equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 26,4790-4802.


H.-R, Kim. and S.-I. An, 2013: On the Subarctic North Atlantic Cooling due to Global Warming, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 114, 9-19(corresponding author).


Choi, J., S.-I. An, S.-W. Yeh, and J.-Y. Yu, 2013: ENSO-like and ENSO-induced Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability in CGCMs, J. Climate, 26, 1485-1501(corresponding author).


Park, J.-H., S.-I. An, S.-W. Yeh, and Schneider N., 2013 : Quantitative Assessment of the Climate Components Driving the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in Climate Models, Theor. Appl. Climatol, 112, 431-445(corresponding author).


An, S.-I., H.-R. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, 2013 : Impact of Freshwater Discharge from the Greenland Ice Sheet on North Atlantic Climate Variability, Theor. Appl. Climatol.112,29-43.


An, S.-I. and J.-H. Park, 2013 : Maintenance of PDO Variability during the Mid-­Holocene in PMIP2, Climate Dynamics, 40,1291-1299(Feb 27, 2013).


An, S.-I. and J. Choi, 2013 : Inverse relationship between the equatorial eastern Pacific annual-cycle and ENSO amplitudes in a Coupled General Circulation Model, Climate Dynamics, 40,663-675.


Choi, J. and S.-I. An, 2013 : Quantifying the residual effects of ENSO on low-frequency variability in the tropical Pacific, Int. J. Climatology, 33,1047-1052(corresponding author).


Y. Tang, S.-I. An, and W. Duan, 2013 : Climate Variability and Predictability at Various Time Scales, Advances in Meteorology, 2012, Article ID 857831, 1 page. doi:10.1155/2012/857831.



Im, S.-H., S.-I. An, M. Lengaigne, and Y, Noh, 2012: Seasonality of Tropical Instability Waves and Its Feedback to the Seasonal Cycle in the Tropical Eastern Pacific, The Scientific World Journal, 2012, Article ID 612048, 11 pages. doi:10.1100/2012/612048.(corresponding author)


Ham, S., S.-Y. Jong, Y. Noh, S.-I. An, Y.-H. Byun, H.-S. Kang, J. Lee, and W.-T. Kwon, 2012 : Effects of fresh water run off on a trpical Pacific climate in the HAdGEM2. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 457 -463.


An, S.-I., J.-W Kim, S.-H. Im, B.-M. Kim, and J.-H. Park, 2012 : Recent and Future Sea Surface Temperature Trends in Tropical Pacific Warm Pool and Cold Tongue Regions, Climate Dynamics, 39, 1373-1383.


Dewitte B., J. Choi, S.-I. An, and S. Thual, 2012 : Vertical structure variability and equatorial waves during central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Ninos in a coupled general circulation model, Climate Dynamics, 38, 2275-2289.


Choi, J., S.-I. An, and S.-W. Yeh, 2012 : Decadal amplitude modulation of two types of ENSO and its relationship with the mean state, Climate Dynamics, 38, 2631-2644.(corresponding author)(June 1, 2012)


An, S.-I., J.-H. Park, B.-M. Kim, A. Timmermann, and F.-F. Jin, 2012 : Impacts of ocean gateway and basin width on Tertiary tropical climate variability in a prototype model, Theor, Appl. Climatol., 107, 155-164.(Jan. 9, 2012)




An, S.-I., 2011 : Atmospheric responses of Gill-type and Lindzen-Nigam models to global warming, J. Climate, 24, 6165-6173.(Dec 1, 2011)


Choi, J., S.-I. An, J.-S. Kug, and S.-W. Yeh, 2011 : The role of mean state on changes in El Nino’s flavor, Climate Dynamics, 37, 1205-1215.(corresponding author)(Sep. 1, 2011)


Thual, S., B. Dewitte, N. Ayoub, and S.-I. An, 2011 : Sensitivity of ENSO to stratification in a recharge-discharge conceptual model. J. Climate, 24, 4332-4349.


Sung, M.-K., G.-H. Lim, J.-S. Kug, and S.-I. An, 2011 : A linkage between the NAO and its down stream development due to the existence of blocking ridge. J. Geophys. Res.- Atmosphere, 116, D11107.(corresponding author)(June. 4, 2011)


Kim, B.-M., and S.-I. An, 2011: Understanding ENSO regime behavior upon an increase in the warm-pool temperature using a simple ENSO model. J. Climate, 24, 1438-1450.(corresponding author)(Mar. 1, 2011)


An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2011: Linear solutions for the frequency and amplitude modulation of ENSO by the annual cycle, Tellus, 63A, 238-243.(Mar. 1, 2011)



An, S.-I., and J. Choi, 2010 : Interaction between Equatorially Symmetric and Asymmetric Tropical Eastern Pacific SSTs, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 102, 151-158.


Belmadani, A., B. Dewitte and S.-I. An, 2010 : ENSO feedbacks and associated timescales of variabillity in a multi-model ensemble, J.Climate, 23, 3181-3204.(June 15, 2010)


Collins, M., S.-I. An, W. Cai, A. Ganachaud, E. Guilyardi, F.-F. Jin, M. Jochum, M. Lengaigne, S. Power, A. Timmermann, G. Vecchi, and A. Wittenberg, 2010: The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Nino, Nature Geoscience, 3, 391-397.


Kug, J.-S., S.-I. An, Y.-G. Ham, and I.-S. Kang, 2010 : Changes in El Nino and La Nina teleconncetions over North Pacific-America in the global warming simulations, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 100, 275-282.(corresponding author)(May. 2010)


Kug, J.-S., J. Choi, S.-I. An, F.-F. Jin and A.-T. Wittenberg, 2010 : Warm Pool and Cold Tongue El Nino events as simulated by the GFDL2.1 coupled GCM, J. Climate, 23, 1226-1239.(corresponding author)(Mar. 1, 2010)


An, S. -I., Y.-G. Ham, J.-S. Kug, A. Timmermann, J. Choi and I.-S. Kang, 2010 : The inverse effect of annual mean state and annual cycle changes on ENSO, J. Climate, 23, 1095-1110.(Mar. 1, 2010)



Choi, J., S.-I. An, B. Dewitte, and W.-W. Hsieh, 2009 : Interactive feedback between the tropical Pacific decadal oscillation and ENSO in a coupled general circulation model, J. Climate, 22, 6597-6611.(corresponding author)(Dec. 15. 2009)


Dewitte, B., S. Thual, S.-W. Yeh, S.-I. An, B.-K. Moon, and Giese, 2009 : Low-frequency Variability of Temperature in the Vicinity of the Equatorial Pacific thermocline in SODA: Role of Equatorial Wave Dynamics and ENSO Asymmetry, J. Climate, 22, 5783-5795.(Nov. 15, 2009)


An, S. -I., and J. Choi, 2009 : Seasonal locking of the ENSO asymmetry and its influence on the seasonal cycle of the tropical eastern Pacific sea surface temperature. Atmospheric Research, 94, 3-9.(Sep. 2009).


An, S. -I., 2009 : A review of interdecadal changes in the nonlinearity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97, 29-40.(June, 2009)


Kug, J.-S., F.-F. Jin, and S.-I. An, 2009 : Two Types of El Nino Events: Cold Tongue El Nino and Warm Pool El Nino, J. Climate, 22, 1499-1515.(march 15, 2009).



An, S.-I., 2008 : Interannual Changes in the Variability of Tropical Pacific Instability Waves, Asia Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 44, 249-258.(Aug, 2008)


An, S.-I., 2008 : Interannual Variations of the Tropical Ocean Instability Wave and ENSO, J. Climate. 21, 3680-3686.(Aug, 2008)


An, S.-I., 2008 : A mechanism for the multi-decadal climate oscillation in the North Pacific, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 91, 77-84.(Feb, 2008)


An, S.-I., J.-S. Kug, Y.-G. Ham, and I.-S. Kang, 2008 : Successive modulation of ENSO to the future greenhouse warming, J. Climate. 21, 3-21.(Jan. 15, 2008)



Timmermann, A., Y. Okumura, S.-I. An, A. Clement, B. Dong, E. Guilyardi, A. Hu, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Renold, T. F. Stocker, R. J. Stouffer, R. Sutton, S.-P. Xie, and J. Yin, 2007 : The influence of a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on ENSO, J. Climate. 20, 4899-4919.


Timmermann, A., S. J. Lorenz, S.-I. An, A. Clement, and S.-P. Xie, 2007 : The effect of orbital forcing on the mean climate and variability of the tropical Pacific, J. Climate. 20, 4147-4159.


Yeh, S.-W., B. P. Kirtman, and S.-I. An, 2007 : Local versus non-local atmospheric weather noise and the North Pacific SST, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L14706.


Dewitte, B., C. Cibot, C. Perigaud, S.-I. An, and L. Terray, 2007 : Interaction between near-annual and ENSO modes in a CGCM simulation : Role of the equatorial background mean state, J. Climate. 20, 1035-1052.


Holland, C. L., R. B. Scott, S.-I. An, and F. W. Taylor, 2007 : Propagating decadal sea surface temperature signal identified in modern proxy records of the tropical Pacific, Climate Dynamics, 28, 163-179.


An, S.-I., J.-S. Kug, A. Timmermann, I.-S. Kang, and O. Timm, 2007 : The influence of ENSO on the generation of decadal variability in the North Pacific, J. Climate. 20, 667-680.



An, S.-I., Z. Ye., and W. Hsieh, 2006 : Changes in the leading ENSO modes associated with the late 1970s climate shift : Role of surface zonal current, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14609.


Kug, J.-S., T. Li, S.-I. An, I.-S. Kang, J.-J. Luo, S. Masson, and T. Yamagata, 2006 : Role of the ENSO-Indian Ocean coupling on ENSO variability in a coupled GCM, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L09710.


Kwon, M. H., J.-G, Jhun, B. Wang, S.-I. An, and J.-S. Kug, 2005 : Decadal change in relationship between east Asian summer monsson and western north Pacific summer monsoon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16709.


Wang, B., and S.-I. An, 2005 : A method for season-dependent modes of climate variability : S-EOF analysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15710.


Timmermann, A., S.-I. An, U. Krebs, and H. Goosse, 2005 : ENSO suppression due to a weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, J. Climate. 18, 3122-3139.


An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2005 : The forced and intrinsic low-frequency models in the North Pacific, J. Climate. 18, 876-885.


Kug, J.-S., S.-I. An, F.-F. Jin, and I.-S. Kang, 2005 : Preconditions for El Nino and La Nina onsets and their relation to Indian Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05706.


An, S.-I., and W. W. Hsieh, and F.-F. Jin, 2005 : A nonlinear analysis of ENSO cycle and its interdecadal changes, J. Climate. 18, 3229-3239.


An, S.-I., 2005 : Relative roles of the equatorial upper ocean zonal current and thermocline in determining the timescale of the tropical climate system, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 81, 121-132.


An, S.-I., Y.-G. Ham, J.-S. Kug, F.-F. Jin, and I.-S. Kang, 2005 : El Nino-La Nina asymmetry in the coupled model Intercomparison project simulations, J. Climate. 18, 2617-2627.



An, S.-I., A. Timmermann, L. Bejarano, F.-F. Jin, F. Justino, Z. Liu, and A. W. Tudhope, 2004 : Modeling evidence for enhanced El Nino-Southern Oscillation amplitude during the Last Glacial Maximum, Paleoceanography. 19, PA4009.


An, S.-I., 2004 : Interdecadal changes in the El Nino-La Nina asymmetry, Geophy. Res. Lett., 31, L23210.


Kang, I.-S., J.-S. Kug, S.-I. An and F.-F. Jin, 2004 : A Near-Annual Pacific Ocean Basin Mode, J. Climate. 17, 2478-2488.


An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2004 : Nonlinearity and asymmetry of ENSO, J. Climate. 17, 2399-2412.


An, S.-I., 2004 : A dynamic link between the basin-scale and zonal modes in the Tropical Indian Ocean, Theor. Appl. Climato., 78, 203-215.


Kug, J.-S., I.-S. Kang and S.-I. An, 2003 : Symmetric and anti-symmetric mass exchanges between the equatorial and off-equatorial Pacific associated with ENSO, J. Geophy. Res. -Oceans. 108, C8, 3284.


An, S.-I., 2003 : Conditional Maximum Covariance Analysis and its Application to the Tropical Indian Ocean SST and Surface wind Stress Anomalies, J. Climate. 16, 2932-2938.


Jin, F.-F., S.-I. An, A. Timmermann, and J. Zhao, 2003 : Strong El Nino events and nonlinear dynamical heating, Geophys. Res. Letts. 30, 1120.


Jin, F.-F., J.-S. Kug, S.-I. An and I.-S. Kang, 2003 : A near-annual coupled ocean-atmosphere mode in the equatorial Pacific ocean, Geophys. Res. Letts. 30, 1080.


Wang, B., and S.-I. An, 2002 : A mechanism for decadal changes of ENSO behavior : Roles of background wind changes, Climate Dyn. 18, 475-486.


An, S.-I., and I.-S. Kang, 2001 : Tropical Pacific Basin-Wide Adjustment and Oceanic Waves, Geophy. Res. Lett., 28, 3975-3978.


Wang, B., and S.-I. An, 2001 : Why the Properties of El Nino changed During the Late 1970s, Geophy. Res. Lett., 28, 3421-3432.


An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2001 : Collective Role of Thermocline and Zonal Advective Feedbacks in the ENSO Mode, J. Climate, 14, 3421-3432.


An, S.-I., and I.-S. Kang, 2001 : Sensitivity of the Equatorial Air-Sea Coupled System to the Zonal Phase Difference between SST and Wind Stress, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 155-165.


Kang, I.-S., S.-I. An and F.-F. Jin, 2001 : A Systematic Approximation of the SST Anomaly Equation for ENSO, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan. 79, 1-10.


An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2001 : Mechanisms of locking the El Nino and La Nina mature phases to boreal winter, J. Climate. 27, 2164-2176.



An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2000 : An eigen analysis of the interdecadal changes in the structure and frequency of ENSO mode, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1573-1576.


An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2000 : Interdecadal change of the structure of the ENSO mode and it impact on the ENSO frequency, J. Climate. 13, 2044-2055.


An, S.-I., and I.-S. Kang, 2000 : A further investigation of the recharge oscillator paradigm for ENSO using a simple coupled model with the zonal mean and eddy separated, J. Climate. 13, 1987-1993.


An, S.-I, 2000 : On the slow mode in a simple air-sea coupled model : The Sensitivity to the zonal pahse difference between the SST and the atmospheric heating, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan. 78, 159-165.


An, S.-I., F.-F. Jin, and I.-S. Kang, 1999 : The role of zonal advection feedback in phase transition and growth of ENSO in the Cane-Zebiak model, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan. 77, 1151-1160.


Jin, F.-F. and S.-I. An, 1999 : Thermocline and zonal advection feedbacks within the equatorial ocean recharge oscillator model for ENSO, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2989-2992.


Kang, I.-S., and S.-I. An, 1998 : Kelvin and Rossby wave contributions to the SST oscillation of ENSO, J. Climate. 11, 2461-2469.

Domestic Journals  


An, S.-I. and J. Choi, 2012 : On the Development of 2012 EI Nino, Atmosphere. 22, 465-472( Korean).


An, S.-I., K.-J. Ha, K.-H. Seo, S.-W. Yeh, S.-K. Min, and C.-H. Ho, 2011 : A review of recent climate trends and causes over the Korean Peninsula, Climate Change Research, 2(4), 237-251(Korean).


Kug, J.-S., S.-I. An, 2010 : Ocean dynamic processes responsible for the interannual variability of the tropical Indian Ocean SST associated with ENSO, Atmosphere, 20, 211-219.


Kang, I.-S., Yang-Mi Lee, and S.-I. An, 1995 : Interannual variability of Typhoon activity over the western Pacific and El Nino, J. Korean Meteor. Soc. 31, 15-26.


Kang, I.-S., S.-I. An, C.-H. Joung, S.-C. Yoon, and S.-M. Lee, 1989 : 30-60 day oscillation signal appearing in climatological variation of outgoing longwave radiation around East Asian region during Northern Summer, J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 25, 221-232.

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